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Author Guidelines

The most important thing you can do as you prepare your manuscript is to consult a recent issue of APP in terms of the acceptable format for headings, title page, Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion (or combined Results and Discussion), Literature Cited, and tables and figures (including figure captions), which are described in more detail below. Failure to adhere to the style and form will result in immediate rejection of the manuscript.


Papers must be written in English and must use the American spelling and usage as well as standard scientific usage, as given in the following online resources:
Manuscripts should be prepared double-spaced in Microsoft Word, with lines and pages numbered conseductively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. Special characters (e.g., Greek and symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font. Complex equations should be entered using Math- Type. Tables and figures should be placed in placed in the text. Authors should prepare their manuscript in Microsoft Word and send the manuscripts using the fewest files possible to facilitate the review and editing processes.
Manuscripts should contain the following sections (Appendices or Online Only  Data  Supplements,  described below, are optional), in this order:


Authors and affiliation
The names and affiliations of the authors should be presented as follows:
John Smith1,*, Pier E. Jones2, Jack Garcia1,3  and Paul Martin Jr2
1Department of Animal Nutrition, Scottish Agricultural College, West Main Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
2Animal Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7621, USA
3Laboratorio de Producci?n Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, C. Miguel Servet, 177,50013, Zaragoza, Spain
*Present address: Dairy Science Laboratory, AgResearch, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Corresponding author: John Smith. E-mail:


The corresponding author indicated in the manuscript who will be the correspondent for a published paper can be different from the corresponding author who submits and manages the manuscript during the review process; the latter corresponding author will need to be registered on Editorial Manager.


Title Page 
The title page includes a running head (the first word only and any proper nouns capitalized and no more than 45 characters plus spaces); the title (only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized, as brief as possible, and including the species involved); names of authors (e.g., T. E. Smith; no title, positions, or degrees) and institutions, including the department, city, state or country (all with first letters capitalized), and ZIP or postal code. Affiliations are footnoted using the number and are placed below the author names. Footnotes on the first page (present address, and email address of the corresponding author) are referenced by superscript numbers. Acknowledgments, including acknowledgements of grants, experiment station, or journal series number, are given as a footnote to the title. Authors who hold patents related to the research presented in the manuscript should include a statement in a footnote.


The abstract consists of no more than 350 words in one paragraph and summarizes the pertinent results (with statistical evidence; i.e., P-values) in a brief but understandable form, beginning with a clear statement of the objective and ending with the conclusions, with no references cited.


Key Words
List up to 6 key words or phrases including the species, variables tested, and the major response criteria. The first letter of each key word is lowercase (unless a proper noun); key words are separated by commas and presented in alphabetical order; and no abbreviations should be used.


The  Introduction  should  briefly  present  the  current  issues  that  the  authors  are  addressing  while outlining the context of the work, ensuring that the objectives are clearly defined, and that the main features of the experiment or of the work are clear to the reader. Increasing the knowledge on a subject is not an objective per se. References in the Introduction should be limited as it should not be a preliminary discussion or a literature review.


Materials and Methods
A clear description or specific original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Diets, dates of experimental activities if appropriate, animals [breed, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions (i.e., with or without restriction of feed and water)], surgical techniques, measurements, and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Appropriate statistical methods should be used, although the biology should be emphasized. Statistical methods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. Always reference SAS with the manufacturer information (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC); do not call out as a reference in the Literature Cited. A statement of the results of the statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions. The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed. Measurements on the same experimental unit over time also are not independent and should not be considered as independent experimental units. Provide a validation for assays [e.g., mean and CV for repeated analysis of a sample (both between and within-assay if available) and the sensitivity (minimum amount or concentration detectable)]. Also, provide a publication reference for the methodology used in kits. Centrifugal force should be provided in × g, not rpm, and duration and temperature of centrifugation must be included. Include volume of blood collected, container used, and amount of preservative or anticoagulant (e.g., heparin).


The results are presented in the form of tables or figures when feasible. The text should explain or elaborate on the tabular data, but numbers should not be repeated within the text. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached (including significance level; i.e., P-value), should be presented to allow the reader to interpret the results of the experiment. Reporting the actual P-value is preferred to the use of the terms significant and highly significant. Thus, the observed significance level (e.g., P = 0.027) should be presented, thereby allowing the reader to decide what to reject. Other probability (alpha) levels may be discussed if properly qualified so that the reader is not misled (e.g., trends in the data).


The discussion should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of biological mechanisms and significance and also should integrate the research findings with the body of previously published literature to provide the reader with a broad base on which to accept or reject the hypotheses tested. A stand-alone Discussion section should not refer to any tables or figures, nor should it include P- values (unless citing a P-value from another work).

Summarize all important accomplishments achieved.

List of funding resources can be listed. These should be brief and placed at the end of the text before the references

List only pertinent references. No more than 3 references should be needed to support a specific concept. Research papers and reviews should cite a reasonable number of references. Abstracts and articles from non- peer-reviewed magazines and proceedings should be cited sparingly. Citation of abstracts published more than 3 yr ago is strongly discouraged.


Arrange reference according APA Referencing Style. see below link:

Citations in Text

In the body of the manuscript, refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structure requires that the authors’ names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993) with citations listed chronologically (i.e., oldest first) and then alphabetically within a year. Where there are more than 2 authors of one article, the first author’s name is followed by the abbreviation et al. Work that has not been accepted for publication shall be listed in the text as follows: “J. E. Jones (institution, city, and state, personal communication).” The author’s own unpublished work should be listed in the text as “(J. Smith, unpublished data).” Personal communications and unpublished data (including papers under review) must not be included in the references section.


References Section
To be listed in the references section, papers must be published or accepted for publication. Manuscripts submitted for publication can be cited as “unpublished data” in the text. In the references section, references shall first be listed alphabetically by author(s)’ last name(s), and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. As with text citations, two or more publications by the same author or set of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date. The dates for papers with the same first author that would be abbreviated in the text as et al., even though the second and subsequent authors differ, shall also be differentiated by letters. All authors’ names must appear in the reference section.



Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors shall complete the Manuscript Submission and Copyright Release form for each new manuscript submission. The form is completed during the submission process through Manuscript Central. Person's unable complete copyright agreements, such as federal employees, must indicate the reason for exemption on the form. Persons who wish to reproduce material in APP must request written permission to reprint copyrighted information from the managing editor. Likewise, authors of APP manuscripts who include material (usually tables or figures) taken from other copyrighted sources must secure permission from the copyright holders and provide evidence of this permission at the time the manuscript is submit- ted to APP for review. Tables or figures reproduced from the work of others must include an acknowledgment of the original source in a footnote or legend.


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Author Fees

This journal charges the following author fees.

Fast-Track Review: 25.00 (USD)
With the payment of this fee, the review, editorial decision, and author notification on this manuscript is guaranteed to take place within 2 weeks.